Streetcars in Atlanta
Aug 14, 1945 - Soldiers and others celebrate V-J Day (“Victory over Japan Day”) on top of a streetcar on Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Georgia, August 14, 1945. Streetcars operated in Atlanta from 1871-1949. Now, a modern day streetcar is currently under construction and is expected to open this year. Go to myajc.com to see more images of the streetcar through history.
Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive
The Fallen Caryatid Carrying her Stone
c.1880-1, cast 1950
TATE: In 1880 Rodin was commissioned to make a portal and set of monumental doors for the Musée des arts décoratifs in Paris. This work, known as ‘The Gates of Hell’, included a large number of figures in relief. These inspired several individual works, including this caryatid. An early version of this sculpture was exhibited in 1886. Three years later one critic wrote, ‘this supple little creature, not more that eighteen inches high, is regarded by the sculptor and his friends as one of his very best compositions, and many copies of it have been made for the latter in both marble and bronze’. This particular bronze was made in 1950 from a plaster cast.
German, born 1932
St. Louis Museum of Art:
This monumental diptych … evokes a somber and mysterious mood. When seen together they create an enveloping environment not unlike the experience of a nocturnal landscape glimpsed through the rain-spattered window of a moving car. Gerhard Richter created the sense of movement in these works by dragging large squeegee spatulas across the canvases, simultaneously applying new paint while scraping off previous layers. Although they are entirely abstract, the paintings have a blurred quality and predominantly black and white palette that paradoxically suggest photographic images. The titles of the three diptychs provide some historical grounding and clues to their interpretation. In November of 1989, forty years of a divided Germany collapsed as the East German government succumbed to mass demonstrations and opened the Berlin Wall. Richter, who was born in East Germany and had fled to the west a few months before the wall was built in 1961, had a complex response to these events. While a celebratory mood prevailed in the streets and the media at the time, it appears as if Richter condensed the emotional and political uncertainty of these cataclysmic changes and the questions arising from them into these massive paintings in which past, present, and future are submerged in layers of paint.
Gerhard Richter: Abstract Painting (809-3) 1994
From the mid 1980s, Richter began to use a home-made squeegee to rub and scrape the paint that he had applied in large bands across his canvases. This spread the paint over the surface and integrated the various colours with each other. In the 1990s the artist began to run his squeegee up and down the canvas in an ordered fashion to produce vertical columns that take on the look of a wall of planks. ‘Abstraktes Bild (809-3)’ is typical of these paintings. One effect of the use of the squeegee was to create a blurring of one area of colour into another – similar to the blurring in Richter’s earlier photo-paintings – so that one has the feeling of looking at an out of focus image, that lies tantalisingly beyond decipherment.
March 9, 1945: Operation Meetinghouse begins.
The first bombings conducted by the United States over Japan came in the form of the Doolittle Raid, a 1942 air raid that succeeded in boosting American morale but caused very little long-lasting damage to targeted Japanese cities. Systematic strategic firebombing campaigns by Allied forces began in the last months of the war. The bombing campaign dubbed Operation Meetinghouse, which struck Tokyo on March 9-10 with incendiary bombs and firestorms, was of an entirely different nature and more closely resembled the 1945 bombing of Dresden.
On March 9, 1945, around 330 B-29s (the plane that carried out the majority of bombings in Japan, including the final atomic strikes over Hiroshima and Nagasaki) launched an attack on the Japanese Home Islands from U.S. outposts in the Mariana archipelago. The bombers carried out low-altitude raids over Tokyo using incendiary bombs, which were gruesomely effective against the tightly-packed and highly-flammable buildings that were common in Japan. The manner in which the bombings were carried out also made it impossible to avoid devastating civilian populations. There was no way to accurately target, with these napalm bombs, factories and industrial buildings, and avoid civilian areas. Fiery infernos burned on the ground, reaching 1,000 ° C, and wind swept burning debris and “clots of flame” into the air, setting everything surrounding alight. Civilians threw themselves into canals and any nearby water in attempts to escape the burning, but still stacks of incinerated bodies piled up in the streets. Curtis LeMay, who executed the strategic bombing campaign in the Pacific Theater, described the victims as having been “scorched and boiled and baked to death”. An estimated 80,000 - 100,000 (according to the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey and the Tokyo Metropolitan Police) died in that overnight air raid, during which some 4,500,000 pounds of incendiaries were dropped in three hours.
The stench of burning human flesh was reportedly so strong that the Americans bomber pilots flying thousands of feet overhead could smell it.
The firebombing of Tokyo, which was followed by similar bombings in Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe, was the deadliest air raid of World War II. It was only the beginning of a firebombing campaign that targeted and destroyed Japanese cities both large and small throughout the spring and summer until the capitulation of the Japanese Empire in August of 1945. In a memorandum dated June 17, 1945, Bonner Fellers - a U.S. Army strategist on psychological warfare - described the American firebombing campaign of Japan as “one of the most ruthless and barbaric killings of non-combatants in all history.”
I think the devil doesn’t exist, but man has created him, he has created him in his own image and likeness.